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What is the DSM-5?

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

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Updated October 25, 2013

Written or reviewed by a board-certified physician. See About.com's Medical Review Board.

On this site and in many other places, you'll find references to both the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders — the DSM-IV, published in 1994, and the DSM-5, which will replace it on publication. This manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association, and contains the formal requirements for classifying and diagnosing mental illnesses.

One reason this is important is that the manual contains diagnostic codes the same way physical illnesses do. For example, if a doctor orders blood tests and gives you a paper to take to the lab, the lab may insist that there be a diagnostic code on the order, because they have to provide it to your insurance company. It's the same with mental illnesses: a psychiatrist can't simply tell your insurance, "This patient has bipolar disorder." He has to give them a specific code for the type of bipolar disorder.

History of the DSM

The first edition of the DSM was published in 1952, listing 66 disorders. Each of these included a short list of symptoms, along with some information about suspected causes. The 1968 version contained 100 disorders, and in 1979, the third edition shifted away from psychoanalytic emphasis, contained over 200 diagnostic categories and introduced the multi-axial system (Axis I to Axis V).

  • Axis I - Clinical Disorders (including bipolar disorder)
  • Axis II - Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
  • Axis III - General Medical Conditions
  • Axis IV - Psychosocial and Environmental Problems (stressors)
  • Axis V - Global Assessment of Functioning
DSM-IV was first published in 1994, and a revised edition in 2000, called the DSM-IV-TR (though the "TR," or text revision, often wasn't included in articles referencing the manual). While sticking with the "Axis" system, this edition broke diagnoses and symptoms down into sections or "decision trees." Here's a quick example:
  1. Symptom that must be included.

  2. There must be three or more symptoms present from a list:

    1. Symptom A
    2. Symptom B
    3. Symptom C
    4. Symptom D
    5. Symptom E

  3. Condition that must not be present.

The New DSM-5

Published in 2013, the DSM-5 makes many changes, some of them controversial, some not. The most obvious of these is that it's called the DSM-5 instead of DSM-V. Switching from Roman to Arabic numerals means that, instead of using the cumbersome system in which the 2000 edition was called "DSM-IV-TR," any revisions can now be called "DSM-5.1," etc., making things much clearer.

A significant change is that the Axis system has been dropped. Instead, there are 20 chapters containing categories of related disorders. "Bipolar and Related Disorders" is one category. Other examples are:

  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
  • Depressive Disorders
  • Feeding and Eating Disorders
  • Personality Disorders
One of the biggest controversies is that Asperger's Syndrome, a diagnosis related to Autism, has been eliminated. Many parents whose children are now diagnosed with Asperger's fear their children will lose services that the diagnosis currently qualifies them for.

A number of other changes have been made to pediatric disorders that have caused widespread controversy, even causing at least one psychiatrist to resign from the DSM-5's Child and Adolescent Disorders workgroup.

Bipolar Disorder in the DSM-5

Even though childhood bipolar disorder has been well-defined and used (though not listed in the DSM-IV) for many years, pediatric bipolar disorder is not a new diagnosis in the DSM-5. Instead, children with such symptoms will most likely fall into either the category of Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders, or into a diagnosis that is part of the category of Depressive Disorders, called Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder. How this plays out remains to be seen.

For adult bipolar disorder, there are now five possible diagnoses:

  • C 00 Bipolar I Disorder
  • C 01 Bipolar II Disorder
  • C 02 Cyclothymic Disorder
  • C 03 Substance-Induced Bipolar Disorder
  • C 04 Bipolar Disorder Associated with Another Medical Condition
  • C 05 Bipolar Disorder Not Elsewhere Classified
Changes include:
  • Elimination of "Mixed Episode." Instead, a manic, hypomanic or depressive episode can be specified as "With Mixed Features," a specifier with its own definition in the manual.

  • The Bipolar II diagnosis in the DSM-IV excluded a history of mixed episodes. This exclusion has been removed, an important change.

  • A change to the first criterion of Hypomanic Episode has created a paradox, conflicting with another criterion:

    • Criterion A: A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy, lasting at least 4 consecutive days and present most of the day, nearly every day (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary). (Emphasis mine)

    • Criterion E: E. The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, or to necessitate hospitalization. If there are psychotic features, the episode is, by definition, manic. (Emphasis mine)

    It is hoped that this will be corrected either before publication or in a subsequent revision.

  • In addition, a subtle change is that the word "abnormally" was not included in Criterion A for a hypomanic episode, while it was in Criterion A for a manic episode. This brings the full criteria for the two distinct types of episodes much closer together.
Each type of bipolar disorder has what are called specifiers (such as "With Mixed Features," above) that further clarify the illness. Noteworthy is that two of the specifiers in the DSM-IV-TR that have been removed are "In Full Remission" and "In Partial Remission."

Current Diagnostic Criteria for Bipolar Disorders and Episodes

Until the DSM-5 is actually published, the official diagnostic criteria are:

1. For Bipolar Disorder:

2. Episodes:

Sources:
Bradley, D. "The Proposed DSM-5: Alterations and Altercations." National Alliance on Mental Illness.
Dobbs, D. "The New Temper Tantrum Disorder." Slate. 7 Dec 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Bipolar I Disorder. 28 April 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Bipolar II Disorder. 28 April 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Manic Episode. 28 Apr 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Hypomanic Episode. 28 Apr 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Major Depressive Episode. 30 April 2012.
American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Mixed Features Specifier. 28 April 2012.

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